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(ページの作成:「{{Elementbox |name=calcium |pronounce={{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|l|s|i|ə|m}} {{respell|KAL|see-əm}} |number=20 |symbol=Ca |left=potassium |right=scandium |above=[[magnes...」)
 
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{{Elementbox
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{{Infobox element
 
|name=calcium
 
|name=calcium
 
|pronounce={{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|l|s|i|ə|m}} {{respell|KAL|see-əm}}
 
|pronounce={{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|l|s|i|ə|m}} {{respell|KAL|see-əm}}
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|CAS number=7440-70-2
 
|CAS number=7440-70-2
 
|isotopes=
 
|isotopes=
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=40 | sym=Ca | na=96.941% | hl=[[1 E19 s and more|>5.9×10<sup>21</sup> y]] | dm=[[double beta decay|β<sup>+</sup>β<sup>+</sup>]] | de=0.194  | link1=argon-40 | pn=40 | ps=Ar}}
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{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=40 | sym=Ca | na=96.941% | hl=[[1 E19 s and more|>5.9×10<sup>21</sup> y]] | dm=([[double beta decay|β<sup>+</sup>β<sup>+</sup>]]) | de=0.194  | link1=argon-40 | pn=40 | ps=Ar}}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=41 | sym=Ca | na=[[trace radioisotope|trace]] | hl=[[1 E12 s |1.03×10<sup>5</sup> y]] | dm=[[electron capture|ε]] | de=- | link1=potassium-41 | pn=41 | ps=K}}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=41 | sym=Ca | na=[[trace radioisotope|trace]] | hl=[[1 E12 s |1.03×10<sup>5</sup> y]] | dm=[[electron capture|ε]] | de=- | link1=potassium-41 | pn=41 | ps=K}}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_stable | mn=42 | sym=Ca | na=0.647% | n=22 }}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_stable | mn=42 | sym=Ca | na=0.647% | n=22 }}
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{{Elementbox_isotopes_stable | mn=44 | sym=Ca | na=2.086% | n=24 }}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_stable | mn=44 | sym=Ca | na=2.086% | n=24 }}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=45 | sym=Ca | na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=[[1 E7 s|162.7 d]] | dm=[[beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>]] | de=0.258 | link1=scandium-45 | pn=45 | ps=Sc}}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=45 | sym=Ca | na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=[[1 E7 s|162.7 d]] | dm=[[beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>]] | de=0.258 | link1=scandium-45 | pn=45 | ps=Sc}}
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=46 | sym=Ca | na=0.004% | hl=[[1 E19 s and more|>2.8×10<sup>15</sup> y]] | dm=[[double beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>β<sup>−</sup>]] | de=0.988 | link1=titanium-46 | pn=46 | ps=Ti}}
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{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=46 | sym=Ca | na=0.004% | hl=[[1 E19 s and more|>2.8×10<sup>15</sup> y]] | dm=([[double beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>β<sup>−</sup>]]) | de=0.988 | link1=titanium-46 | pn=46 | ps=Ti}}
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay2 | mn=47 | sym=Ca | na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=[[1 E5 s|4.536 d]]
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay2 | mn=47 | sym=Ca | na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=[[1 E5 s|4.536 d]]
 
  | dm1=[[beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>]] | de1=0.694, 1.99 | link1=scandium-47 | pn1=47 | ps1=Sc |
 
  | dm1=[[beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>]] | de1=0.694, 1.99 | link1=scandium-47 | pn1=47 | ps1=Sc |
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{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay2 | mn=48 | sym=Ca | na=0.187% | hl=[[1 E19 s and more|4.3×10<sup>19</sup> y]]
 
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay2 | mn=48 | sym=Ca | na=0.187% | hl=[[1 E19 s and more|4.3×10<sup>19</sup> y]]
 
  | dm1=[[double beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>β<sup>−</sup>]] | de1=4.274 | link1=titanium-48 | pn1=48 | ps1=Ti
 
  | dm1=[[double beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>β<sup>−</sup>]] | de1=4.274 | link1=titanium-48 | pn1=48 | ps1=Ti
  | dm2=[[beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>]]<br/>(not observed) | de2=0.0058 | link2=scandium-48 | pn2=48 | ps2=Sc}}
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  | dm2=([[beta decay|β<sup>−</sup>]]) | de2=0.0058 | link2=scandium-48 | pn2=48 | ps2=Sc}}
|isotopes comment=
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|isotopes comment=Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
 
|discovered by=[[Humphry Davy]]
 
|discovered by=[[Humphry Davy]]
 
|discovery date=1808
 
|discovery date=1808

2014年3月27日 (木) 09:34時点における版

Calcium
20Ca
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (other metals)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (other metals)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (other metals)
Tin (other metals)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (other metals)
Lead (other metals)
Bismuth (other metals)
Polonium (other metals)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Mg

Ca

Sr
potassiumcalciumscandium
Calcium in the periodic table
Appearance
dull gray, silver


Spectral lines of calcium
General properties
Name, symbol, number calcium, Ca, 20
Pronunciation /ˈkælsiəm/ KAL-see-əm
Element category alkaline earth metal
Group, period, block group 2 (alkaline earth metals), 4, s
Standard atomic weight 40.078(4)
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2
2, 8, 8, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 1.55 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 1.378 g·cm−3
Melting point 1115 K, 842 °C, 1548 °F
Boiling point 1757 K, 1484 °C, 2703 °F
Heat of fusion 8.54 kJ·mol−1
Heat of 154.7 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 25.929 J·mol−1·K−1
pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 864 956 1071 1227 1443 1755
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +2, +1[1]
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.00 (Pauling scale)
energies
(more)
1st: 589.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1145.4 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 4912.4 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 197 pm
Covalent radius 176±10 pm
Van der Waals radius 231 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 33.6 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 201 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 22.3 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3810 m·s−1
Young's modulus 20 GPa
Shear modulus 7.4 GPa
Bulk modulus 17 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 1.75
Brinell hardness 167 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-70-2
History
Discovery Humphry Davy (1808)
First isolation Humphry Davy (1808)
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of calcium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
40Ca 96.941% >5.9×1021 y (β+β+) 0.194 40Ar
41Ca trace 1.03×105 y ε - 41K
42Ca 0.647% 42Ca is stable with 22 neutrons
43Ca 0.135% 43Ca is stable with 23 neutrons
44Ca 2.086% 44Ca is stable with 24 neutrons
45Ca syn 162.7 d β 0.258 45Sc
46Ca 0.004% >2.8×1015 y (ββ) 0.988 46Ti
47Ca syn 4.536 d β 0.694, 1.99 47Sc
γ 1.297 -
48Ca 0.187% 4.3×1019 y ββ 4.274 48Ti
(β) 0.0058 48Sc
Decay modes in parentheses are predicted, but have not yet been observed
· references

References

  1. Krieck, Sven; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias (2010). "Mechanistic Elucidation of the Formation of the Inverse Ca(I) Sandwich Complex [(thf)3Ca(μ-C6H3-1,3,5-Ph3)Ca(thf)3] and Stability of Aryl-Substituted Phenylcalcium Complexes". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (35): 100818110534020. doi:10.1021/ja105534w. PMID 20718434.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>